Is Qigong training effective in improving fatigue among haemodialysis patients?
Date of publication of the non-randomized controlled trial: April 2014
Design
Non-randomized controlled trial.
Participants
172 end-stage renal disease patients aged 18 years or older, receiving regular haemodialysis treatment for at least 6 months (mean age: 57.1 years in treatment group, 58.3 years in control group; male%: 45.3%).
Intervention
Qigong training for 10 min per day, three times per week on the haemodialysis day for 24 weeks. The training consisted of a mindfulness technique and relaxing postures and focuses on rhythmic breathing with slowly moving one’s hand to one’s head. Participants were encouraged to undertake home practice for at least 10 min twice per day.
Comparator
Comparison 1: Qigong training versus usual care comprised appropriate medical and nursing intervention without the qigong training.
Major Outcomes
Outcome 1: Fatigue measured by the Haemodialysis Patients Fatigue Scale at post-intervention. Higher scores indicated a higher level of fatigue.
Settings
This trial was performed in an outpatient setting.
Comparison    Qigong training versus usual care
Main Results
Compared to usual care, Qigong training showed significant reduction on fatigue level among haemodialysis patients (odds ratio (OR): 0.005, 95% CI: not reported).
Comparison: Qigong training versus usual care in haemodialysis patients at week 24
Outcomes No. of studies (Total number of participants) Mean score (SD)/ No. of participants Heterogeneity test (I2) OR (95% CI) p value Overall quality of evidence*
Intervention Comparator
1 1 (172) Not reported Not reported Not applicable as there is only 1 study. 0.004 (not reported) 0.005 Low
Keys: SD = standard deviation; OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval.
Comparison    Qigong training versus usual care
Main Results
Compared to usual care, Qigong training showed significant reduction on fatigue level among haemodialysis patients (odds ratio (OR): 0.005, 95% CI: not reported).
Comparison: Qigong training versus usual care in haemodialysis patients at week 24
Outcomes 1
No. of studies (Total number of participants) 1 (172)
Mean score (SD)/ No. of participants Intervention Not reported
Comparator Not reported
OR (95% CI) 0.004 (not reported)
p value 0.005
Overall quality of evidence* Low
Keys: SD = standard deviation; OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval.
Conclusion
Benefits
Compared to usual care, Qigong training provided significant reduction on fatigue level among haemodialysis patients, and the effect can be maintained at week 24. The overall quality of evidence is low. Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
Harms
No adverse events were reported in the trial.
Link to Original Article
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24731895
The synopsis is based on the following article:
Wu CY, Han HM, Huang MC, Chen YM, Yu WP, Weng LC. Effect of qigong training on fatigue in haemodialysis patients: A non-randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2014 Apr; 22(2):244-50.


* Interpretation of quality assessment results:
• Very low: Further research is most likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• Low: Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• Moderate: Further research is fairly likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• High: Further research is unlikely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• Very high: Further research is most unlikely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.

Details of assessment method can be found at Chung VC, Wu XY, Ziea ET, Ng BF, Wong SY, Wu JC. Assessing internal validity of clinical evidence on effectiveness of CHinese and integrative medicine: Proposed framework for a CHinese and Integrative Medicine Evidence RAting System (CHIMERAS). European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2015 Aug 31;7(4):332-41.