Is consumption of flavanone-rich orange juice beneficial for improving cognitive function among healthy older adults?
Date of publication of the randomized controlled trial: March 2015
Design
Randomized controlled trial (RCT).
Participants
37 healthy older adults aged 60 to 81 years (mean age: 67 years, male%: 35.1%)
Intervention
Participants were instructed to consume 250mL high-flavanone (305mg) orange juice twice per day for 8 weeks. The high-flavanone orange juice contained one part of 100% orange juice to 3 parts of waters.
Comparator
Comparison: High-flavanone orange juice versus low-flavanone control. Low-flavanone control referred to an equicaloric low-flavanone (37mg) orange-flavored cordial (500mL).
Major Outcomes
Outcome 1: Global cognitive function as assessed by combining all cognitive tests results at week 8.
Settings
This study was performed in an outpatient setting.
Comparison    High-flavanone orange juice versus low-flavanone control
Main Results
Compared to low-flavanone control, 8-week consumption of high-flavanone orange juice significantly improved global cognitive function (p = 0.03).
Comparison: High-flavanone orange juice versus low-flavanone control in healthy older adults
Outcome No. of studies (Total number of participants) Mean value/No. of participants Heterogeneity test (I2) MD (95% CI) p value Overall quality of evidence*
Intervention Comparator
1 1 (35) 9.6/ Not reported 9.1/ Not reported Not applicable as there is only 1 study. Not reported 0.03 Moderate
Keys: MD = mean difference; CI = confidence interval.
Comparison    High-flavanone orange juice versus low-flavanone control
Main Results
Compared to low-flavanone control, 8-week consumption of high-flavanone orange juice significantly improved global cognitive function (p = 0.03).
Comparison: High-flavanone orange juice versus low-flavanone control in healthy older adults
Outcome 1
No. of studies (Total number of participants) 1 (35)
Mean value/No. of participants Intervention 9.6/ Not reported
Comparator 9.1/ Not reported
MD (95% CI) Not reported
p value 0.03
Overall quality of evidence* Moderate
Keys: MD = mean difference; CI = confidence interval.
Conclusion
Benefits
Compared to low-flavanone orange juice, consumption of high-flavanone orange juice provided significant improvement in global cognitive function among healthy older adults. For outcome 1, the overall quality of evidence is moderate. Further research is fairly likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
Harms
The authors did not report details of adverse events.
Link to Original Article
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25411831
The synopsis is based on the following article:
Kean R.J., Lamport D.J., Dodd G.F., Freeman J.E., Williams C.M., Ellis J.A., Butler L.T., Spencer J.P. Chronic consumption of flavanone-rich orange juice is associated with cognitive benefits: an 8-wk, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar;101(3):506-14.


* Interpretation of quality assessment results:
• Very low: Further research is most likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• Low: Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• Moderate: Further research is fairly likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• High: Further research is unlikely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• Very high: Further research is most unlikely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.

Details of assessment method can be found at Chung VC, Wu XY, Ziea ET, Ng BF, Wong SY, Wu JC. Assessing internal validity of clinical evidence on effectiveness of CHinese and integrative medicine: Proposed framework for a CHinese and Integrative Medicine Evidence RAting System (CHIMERAS). European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2015 Aug 31;7(4):332-41.