Is oatmeal consumption effective in preventing cardiovascular disease among adults with hypercholesterolemia?
Date of publication of the randomized controlled trial: August 2012
Design
Randomized controlled trial (RCT).
Participants
182 adults aged 35 to 70 years with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia (mean age: 52.7 years for intervention group, 53.7 years for control group, male%: 40.1%). Participants should have no serious liver, kidney, digestive tract diseases, diabetes or other metabolic diseases.
Intervention
Oatmeal was packaged in 200g packages and 4 packages were provided to participants at the first week, followed by 3 packages in the next 5 weeks. Packages could be spilt across two or three meals each day for the six-week intervention period. Participants were instructed to consume their normal diet during the study period.
Comparator
Comparison: Oat cereal versus wheat flour-based noodles consumed daily for 6 weeks.
Major Outcomes
Outcome 1: Dietary fiber intake change from baseline as measured at the end of the 6-week intervention;
Outcome 2: Waist circumstances change from baseline as measured at the end of the 6-week intervention;
Outcome 3: Total cholesterol change from baseline as measured at the end of the 6-week intervention;
Outcome 4: LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) change from baseline as measured at the end of the 6-week intervention.
Settings
This study was performed in an outpatient setting.
Comparison    Oat cereal versus wheat flour-based noodles
Main Results
Compared to wheat flour-based noodles, instant oat cereal significantly increased dietary fiber intake (p<0.001) at the end of the 6-week intervention. Oat cereal also resulted in significant reduction in waist circumstances (p=0.002), total cholesterol (p=0.015) and LDL-C (p=0.028) among adults with hypercholesterolemia.
Comparison: Oat cereal versus wheat flour-based noodles in adults with hypercholesterolemia
Outcomes (units) No. of studies (Total number of participants) Least square means (standard errors) /No. of participants Heterogeneity test ( I2) MD (95% CI) p value Overall quality of evidence*
Intervention Comparator
1 (g/d) 1 (166) 7.10(0.60)/85 1.40(0.62)/81 Not applicable as there is only 1 study. Not reported <0.001 Moderate
2 (cm) 1 (166) -1.27(0.473)/85 0.85(0.485)/81 Not applicable as there is only 1 study. Not reported 0.002 Moderate
3 (mmol/L) 1 (166) -0.41(0.071)/85 -0.15(0.073)/81 Not applicable as there is only 1 study. Not reported 0.015 Moderate
4 (mmol/L) 1 (166) -0.39(0.067)/85 -0.17(0.069)/81 Not applicable as there is only 1 study. Not reported 0.028 Moderate
Keys: MD = mean difference; CI = confidence interval.
Comparison    Oat cereal versus wheat flour-based noodles
Main Results
Compared to wheat flour-based noodles, instant oat cereal significantly increased dietary fiber intake (p<0.001) at the end of the 6-week intervention. Oat cereal also resulted in significant reduction in waist circumstances (p=0.002), total cholesterol (p=0.015) and LDL-C (p=0.028) among adults with hypercholesterolemia.
Comparison: Oat cereal versus wheat flour-based noodles in adults with hypercholesterolemia
Outcomes (units) 1 (g/d) 2 (cm) 3 (mmol/L) 4 (mmol/L)
No. of studies (Total number of participants) 1 (166) 1 (166) 1 (166) 1 (166)
Least square means (standard errors) /No. of participants Intervention 7.10(0.60)/85 -1.27(0.473)/85 -0.41(0.071)/85 -0.39(0.067)/85
Comparator 1.40(0.62)/81 0.85(0.485)/81 -0.15(0.073)/81 -0.17(0.069)/81
MD (95% CI) Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported
p value <0.001 0.002 0.015 0.028
Overall quality of evidence* Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate
Keys: MD = mean difference; CI = confidence interval.
Conclusion
Benefits
Compared to noodle consumption, consumption of 100 grams of oatmeal daily for 6 weeks significantly increased fiber intake, and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C and waist circumstances in adults with hypercholesterolemia. For all outcomes, the overall quality of evidence is moderate. Further research is fairly likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
Harms
The authors did not report details of adverse events.
Link to Original Article
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22866937
The synopsis is based on the following article:
Zhang J, Li L, Song P, Wang C, Man Q, Meng L, Cai J, Kurilich A. Randomized controlled trial of oatmeal consumption versus noodle consumption on blood lipids of urban Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia. Nutr J. 2012 Aug 6;11:54.


* Interpretation of quality assessment results:
• Very low: Further research is most likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• Low: Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• Moderate: Further research is fairly likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• High: Further research is unlikely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• Very high: Further research is most unlikely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.

Details of assessment method can be found at Chung VC, Wu XY, Ziea ET, Ng BF, Wong SY, Wu JC. Assessing internal validity of clinical evidence on effectiveness of CHinese and integrative medicine: Proposed framework for a CHinese and Integrative Medicine Evidence RAting System (CHIMERAS). European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2015 Aug 31;7(4):332-41.