Is after school raisin snacks effective in lowering food intake among young children?
Date of publication of the randomized controlled trial: June 2013
Design
Randomized controlled trial (RCT).
Participants
26 children (mean age: 10.1 years, male%: 42.3%) with normal body weight.
Intervention
Children were instructed to consume raisins until comfortably full.
Comparator
Comparison: Raisins versus grape, potato chips and chocolate chip cookies.
Major Outcomes
Outcome 1: Calories intake (kcal);
Outcome 2: Water intake (g);
Outcome 3: Cumulative food intake (kcal).
Settings
This trial was performed in an outpatient setting.
Comparison    Raisins versus grape, potato chips and chocolate chip cookies
Main Results
Compared to grape, potato chips and chocolate chip cookies, children who consumed raisins had significantly lower calories intake (p<0.001), water intake (p=0.003) and cumulative food intake (p<0.001)
Comparison: Raisins versus grape, potato chips and chocolate chip cookies among children
Outcomes (unit) No. of studies (Total number of participants) Mean (SD)/ No. of participants Heterogeneity test (I2) MD p value (Anova) Overall quality of evidence*
Intervention Comparator
1 (kcal) 1 (26) 228 (21)/ 26 Not reported/ 26 Not applicable as there is only 1 study. Not reported <0.001 High
2 (g) 1 (26) 256 (25)/ 26 Not reported/ 26 Not applicable as there is only 1 study. Not reported 0.003 High
3 (kcal) 1 (26) 1099 (21)/ 26 Not reported/ 26 Not applicable as there is only 1 study. Not reported <0.001 High
Keys: SD = standard deviation; MD = mean difference.
Comparison    Raisins versus grape, potato chips and chocolate chip cookies
Main Results
Compared to grape, potato chips and chocolate chip cookies, children who consumed raisins had significantly lower calories intake (p<0.001), water intake (p=0.003) and cumulative food intake (p<0.001)
Comparison: Raisins versus grape, potato chips and chocolate chip cookies among children
Outcomes (unit) 1 (kcal) 2 (g) 3 (kcal)
No. of studies (Total number of participants) 1 (26) 1 (26) 1 (26)
Mean (SD)/ No. of participants Intervention 228 (21)/ 26 256 (25)/ 26 1099 (21)/ 26
Comparator Not reported/ 26 Not reported/ 26 Not reported/ 26
MD Not reported Not reported Not reported
p value (Anova) <0.001 0.003 <0.001
Overall quality of evidence* High High High
Keys: SD = standard deviation; MD = mean difference.
Conclusion
Benefits
Compared to grape, potato chips and chocolate chip cookies, children who consumed raisins had significantly lower calories intake and cumulative food intake. For Outcome 1-3, the overall quality of evidence is high. Further research is unlikely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
Harms
No adverse events were reported.
Link to Original Article
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23789934
The synopsis is based on the following article:
Patel BP, Bellissimo N, Luhovyy B, Bennett LJ, Hurton E, Painter JE, et al. An after-school snack of raisins lowers cumulative food intake in young children. Journal of Food Science. 2013 Jun;78 Suppl 1:A5-A10.


* Interpretation of quality assessment results:
• Very low: Further research is most likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• Low: Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• Moderate: Further research is fairly likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• High: Further research is unlikely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.
• Very high: Further research is most unlikely to have an important impact on our confidence in this estimate of effect.

Details of assessment method can be found at Chung VC, Wu XY, Ziea ET, Ng BF, Wong SY, Wu JC. Assessing internal validity of clinical evidence on effectiveness of CHinese and integrative medicine: Proposed framework for a CHinese and Integrative Medicine Evidence RAting System (CHIMERAS). European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2015 Aug 31;7(4):332-41.